Blood acts as a transportation medium for several vital substances like nutrients, hormones, gases etc. A proper examination of hormones in the blood cells can be a good indicator of infertility related problems.
The major hormones that can affect fertility are
Estrogen: Estrogen is responsible for female physical features and reproduction. E2 mostly stimulates pregnancy and helps in the growth and development of female reproductive organs like uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina, breasts etc.
Prolactin: It is responsible for breast development and milk production after child birth. It also has other wide range of functions in the body, like acting on the reproductive system to influence behavior and regulating the immune system.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): In women, FSH hormone stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in the ovary before the release of an egg from one follicle at ovulation. It also increases oestradiol production. In men, follicle stimulating hormone acts on the Sertoli cells of the testes to stimulate sperm production (spermatogenesis).
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH): AMH levels reflects the continuous non-cyclic growth of small follicles and serves as an indicator of ovarian reserve. It seems to be the best endocrine marker for assessing the age-related decline of the ovarian pool in healthy women; thus, it has a potential ability to predict future reproductive lifespan.
Luteinizing hormone (LH): LH stimulates the development of ovarian follicles and helps it to mature and hence helps in triggering ovulation in females. It also stimulates Sperm production in Males.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH): Abnormal level can hinder woman’s ability to be pregnant or can lead to miscarriage.
Blood tests that measure thyroid function (TSH and/or free T4) and steroids, such as testosterone and DHEA-S, are also informative as high levels of androgens can contribute to infertility.